Leaf-nosed Lizard (𝘊𝘦𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘱𝘩𝘰𝘳𝘢 𝘵𝘦𝘯𝘯𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘪)
DESCRIPTION: Distinguished from all other agamids in Sri Lanka by complex, laterally compressed, fleshy and leaf-like rostral appendage that is more prominent in males than females. Body-color highly variable, from greenish to dull greenish-brown. Lateral scales are Large, irregular scales. Tail long and cylindrical. Found in submontane and montane forests, but can also be seen in cardamom and pine plantations. During day may be seen on moss-covered tree trunks 1-2m above the ground and on low bushes. Diurnal, arboreal and slow-moving. Occasional cannibalism has been noted Oviparous, laying 2-4 eggs in a pit.
Tennent’s Leaf-nosed Lizards are little reptiles named after the obvious leaf-moulded projection situated toward the finish of their rostrum. This ornamentation is fleshy, canvassed in scales and granules, and tipped with an obtusely conical scale. The shape is one of a kind to the animal types as it is along the side packed and circular from a parallel view. The appendage is present in juveniles and monomorphic in adults, though slightly smaller in females. The capacity of this limb is obscure, anyway field perceptions recommend it isn’t clearly utilized in rearing or risk show (Pethiyagoda and Manamendra-Arachchi 1998). A few specialists have decided that the extremity serves to increment crypsis by separating the reptiles’ diagram (Johnston et al. 2013).
Normal nose to vent length is 55-70 mm, and tail length is 130-145 mm (Somaweera and Somaweera 2009). Grown-ups commonly have a short and think tongue, a nuchal peak that is inadequately characterized or lacking totally, and no gular overlap. The nostrils are adjusted or oval formed and situated anterolaterally. The digits and paws are horizontally packed, and the paws are somewhat bent and pointed (Pethiyagoda and Manamendra-Arachchi 1998).
Grown-ups are normally rosy darker to olive green on the dorsum and sides (Pethiyagoda and Manamendra-Arachchi 1998). Parallel scales are enormous, irregular, and regularly progressively green (Somaweera and Somaweera 2009). Dark markings are found on the zone around the eyes and sides of the neck. There are around 10 expansive, dim dark coloured groups on the tail with limited lighter territories in the middle. The venter is whitish (Pethiyagoda and Manamendra-Arachchi 1998). (Johnston, et al., 2013; Pethiyagoda and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1998; Somaweera and Somaweera, 2009; “Tennent’s leaf-nosed reptile (Ceratophora tennentii)”, 2003)
No information could be found on the life expectancy and life span of the Leaf-nosed reptile.
Tennent’s Leaf-nosed Lizards are moderate moving and arboreal (Johnston et al. 2013). They like to invest most of their energy in low parts of trees using the sit-and-hold up ruthless technique (Hutchins 2003). Adolescents are to a great extent earthbound (Somaweera and Somaweera 2009).
This species is known to work at moderately low internal heat levels near air temperature. Some thermoregulation is overseen by lolling, frequently in dappled daylight. Because of the shut shelter nature of the woodland and successive overcast spread, searching out open daylight patches might be excessively environmentally expensive for these life forms (de Silva et al. 2005).
Inside the Agamidae family, guys are commonly known to be regional and show regional practices more frequently than females and adolescents. Ceratophora tennentii guys have been accounted for performing two of these regional practices: head sway and body-lift. The head bounce conduct is performed by moderately quick all over developments of the head and neck as it were. The body-lift conduct comprises utilizing each of the four appendages to push the body off the surface promptly followed by the drop (Bandara 2012).
Despite the fact that this species is moderate moving, guys may effectively assault other adversary guys. At the point when upset, they will sometimes open their mouth wide to show the brilliant orange covering of their oral cavity (Somaweera and Somaweera 2009). (Bandara, 2012; Hutchins, 2003; Johnston, et al., 2013; Somaweera and Somaweera, 2009; de Silva, et al., 2005)
Ceratophora tennentii, Tennent’s Leaf-nosed Lizard, is found only in the Knuckles Hills region of central Sri Lanka, an area characterized by tropical moist montane forest. The range encompasses approximately 175 square kilometers. (Manamendra-Arachchi and Liyanage, 1994; Bahir and Surasinghe, 2005; Manamendra-Arachchi and Liyanage, 1994; “Tennent’s leaf-nosed lizard (Ceratophora tennentii)”, 2003)
Ceratophora tennentii is found in the moist tropical montane cloud forests of Sri Lanka’s ‘wet zone’. This mountainous region exists at an elevation of 700 to 1,200 m above sea level and receives more than 2,000 mm of precipitation each year. The Leaf-nose lizard is an arboreal species found most often on the trunks of mossy trees, but also on low bushes, cardamom plants, and on lianas (Somaweera and Somaweera 2009). (Bahir and Surasinghe, 2005; Somaweera and Somaweera, 2009)
Communication and Perception
These Leaf-nosed lizards swear totally on communication among the species. Males exhibit territorial behaviours like a head-bob and body-lift (Bandara 2012). Any use of alternative senses has not been reported.
When disturbed, members of this species can usually open their mouths wide to show the intense orange lining of their rima (Somaweera and Somaweera 2009). (Bandara, 2012; Somaweera and Somaweera, 2009)
Diet: Caterpillars, arthropods, grubs, and ants.
Leaf-nosed Lizard (𝘊𝘦𝘳𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘱𝘩𝘰𝘳𝘢 𝘵𝘦𝘯𝘯𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘪i) References
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 1996. “Ceratophora tennentii” (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed November 03, 2013 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/4178/0.
Ruchira Somaweera. 2013. “Family Agamidae” (On-line). Sri Lankan Reptiles. Accessed November 03, 2013 at http://www.srilankanreptiles.com/TetrapodReptiles/Agamidae.html.
Wildscreen. 2003. “Tennent’s leaf-nosed lizard (Ceratophora tennentii)” (On-line). www.arkive.org. Accessed November 03, 2013 at http://www.arkive.org/tennents-leaf-nosed-lizard/ceratophora-tennentii/.
Bahir, M., T. Surasinghe. 2005. A Conservation Assessment Of The Sri Lankan Agamidae (Reptilia: Sauria). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 12: 407-412. Accessed November 03, 2013 at http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/s12/s12rbz407-412.pdf.
Bandara, I. 2012. Territorial and site fidelity behavior of Lyriocephalus scutatus (Agamidae: Draconinae) in Sri Lanka. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 5(2): 101-113.
Heying, H. 2003. “Agamidae” (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 20, 2013 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Agamidae/.
Hutchins, M. 2003. Leaf-horned agama (Ceratophora tennentii). Pp. 215 in N Schlager, J Murphy, eds. Grizmek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 7, 2 Edition. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale.
Johnston, G., M. Lee, T. Surasinghe. 2013. Morphology and allometry suggest multiple origins of rostral appendages in Sri Lankan agamid lizards. Journal of Zoology, 289: 1-9.
Manamendra-Arachchi, K., S. Liyanage. 1994. Conservation and distribution of the agamid lizards of Sri Lanka with illustrations of the extant species. Journal of South Asian Natural History, 1 (1): 77-96.
Pethiyagoda, R., K. Manamendra-Arachchi. 1998. A revision of the endemic Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora Gray, 1835, with description of two new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History, 3: 1-50.
Pianka, E., L. Vitt. 2003. Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd.
Schulte, J., J. Macey, R. Pethiyagoda, A. Larson. 2002. Rostral Horn Evolution among Agamid Lizards of the Genus Ceratophora Endemic to Sri Lanka. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 22 (1): 111-117.
Somaweera, R., N. Somaweera. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka – A Colour Guide with Field Keys. Germany: Andreas S. Brahm.
de Silva, A., R. Meek, A. Bauer, S. Goonewardene, J. Drake, A. Amarakoon, M. Goonasekera. 2005. The first studies on the thermal ecology of Ceratophora tennentii: (Sauria: Agamidae) Inhabiting the cloud forests of Knuckles Massif, Sri Lanka. Lyriocephalus, 6 (1): 65-71.