TESTUDINES The order Testudines comprises reptiles characterized by having bodies enclosed in shells consisting of a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron. They include Turtles, fresh water terrapins and land tortoises. The shell is formed through the fr of ribs. The jaw has tough, horny plates for gripping food. Nine species (five marine turtles, three freshwater terrapins and one tortoise) in six families are known from Sri Lanka. One species is restricted to Sri Lanka, while another has been introduced through the pet trade. EMYDIDAE (FRESHWATER TERRAPINS) Emydids are primarily freshwater Testudines, though some species inhabit brackish waters and a few are terrestrial. Their sizes are variable (11-60cm in length). In some species the carapace is domed, but most have a low-arching carapace. Ninety-five species in 33 genera are known from North America, northern South America, Europe, north-western Africa, and Asia. A single introduced species occur in Sri Lanka.
Order Testudines characterized by an uncommon hard or cartilaginous shell created from their ribs and going about as a shield.”Turtle” may allude to the request in general (American English) or to new water and ocean staying Testudines (British English). The Order Testudines incorporates both surviving (living) and wiped out species. The most punctual known individuals from this gathering date from the Middle Jurassic, making turtles one of the most seasoned reptile gatherings and a more obsolescent gathering than snakes or crocodilians. Of the 356 known species alive today, some are profoundly endangered.
Turtles are ectotherms—creatures regularly called relentless—implying that their inner temperature changes as indicated by the encompassing condition. In any case, in light of their high metabolic rate, leatherback ocean turtles have an internal heat level that is recognizably higher than that of the encompassing water. Turtles are named amniotes, alongside different reptiles, birds, and warm-blooded animals. Like different amniotes, turtles inhale air and don’t lay eggs submerged, albeit numerous species live in or around water.
The biggest living chelonian is the leatherback ocean turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), which arrives at a shell length of 200 cm (6.6 ft) and can arrive at a load of more than 900 kg (2,000 lb). Freshwater turtles are commonly littler, yet with the biggest species, the Asian softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii, a couple of people have been accounted for up to 200 cm (6.6 ft). These diminutive people even the better-realized crocodile snapping turtle, the biggest chelonian in North America, which achieves a shell length of up to 80 cm (2.6 ft) and weighs as much as 113.4 kg (250 lb).
Monster tortoises of the genera Geochelone, Meiolania, and others were generally broadly conveyed far and wide into ancient occasions, and are known to have existed in North and South America, Australia, and Africa. They got terminated simultaneously as the presence of man, and it is expected people chased them for nourishment. The main enduring monster tortoises are on the Seychelles and Galápagos Islands and can develop to more than 130 cm (51 in) long, and weigh around 300 kg (660 lb).
The biggest ever chelonian was Archelon ischyros, a Late Cretaceous ocean turtle known to have been up to 4.6 m (15 ft) long.
The littlest turtle is the dotted padloper tortoise of South Africa. It gauges close to 8 cm (3.1 in) long and weighs around 140 g (4.9 oz). Two different types of little turtles are the American mud turtles and musk turtles that live in a territory that ranges from Canada to South America. The shell length of numerous species in this gathering is under 13 cm (5.1 in) long.
CHECKOUT – Introduction to Freshwater Fish in Sri Lanka
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